Final Program

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FridaySaturday
January 05, 2017 | Thursday
08.00-19.00 Registration
Lecture Hall program
08:45-10:15Tobii Workshop I.
Eye tracking in developmental studies - Tobii Pro Eye Tracking Workshops    
10:15Coffee Break
10:30-12:00Tobii Workshop II.
Eye tracking in developmental studies - Tobii Pro Eye Tracking Workshops    
13:00-13:15BCCCD17 Welcome    
13:15-15:15Regular Symposium
The influence of group membership on learning and reasoning in infants and children    
The role of language in social cognition: Beyond the social groupism effect
Hanna Marno, Bahia Guellai, Yamil Vidal, Julia Franzoi, Marina Nespor, Jacques Mehler A-0176
The role of language in social cognition: Beyond the social groupism effect
Hanna Marno 1, Bahia Guellai 2, Yamil Vidal 3, Julia Franzoi 3, Marina Nespor 3, Jacques Mehler 3
1 Department of Cognitive Science, Central European University, Budapest, Hungary 2 Laboratoire Ethologie, Cognition, Développement, University of Nanterre - France 3 International School for Advanced Studies, Trieste, Italy

In the past many studies investigated infants’ preference for speakers of their native language (e.g. Mehler et al., 1988; Kinzler at al., 2007). According to many researchers, this preference for native speakers is the basis of dividing the world into social groups and establishing ingroup-outgroup dispositions (Kinzler, 2007). However, we propose that infants prefer native speakers also because they can acquire culturally relevant knowledge from them. Thus, we predict that when infants are exposed to some new information, presented by either a native or a foreign speaker, they will pay more attention to the information provided by a speaker of their language. In our experiment 12-month-old monolingual Italian infants were first familiarized with two speakers, one of them talking in Italian and the other talking in Slovenian to them. After, in the Teaching Phase each of the two speakers silently gazed towards two unfamiliar objects. At the Test Phase infants saw only the objects in pair. Results revealed that they preferred to look at the object that was presented by the Italian speaker, compared to the object that was presented by the Slovenian speaker. Recent results with 5-month-old infants indicate that this effect is also present at much younger age. These findings provide evidence that infants tend to pay more attention to the information presented by a person with whom they share the same language. We believe that this selectivity can serve as a basis for establishing social learning processes by influencing infants’ choices between potential sources of information.
Preschoolers learn selectively from culturally knowledgeable individuals
Kata Oláh, Ildiko Kiràly A-0177
Preschoolers learn selectively from culturally knowledgeable individuals
Kata Oláh, Ildiko Kiràly
University of St Andrews, UK

One of the potential benefits of representing social categories for children is that it helps them identify culturally competent individuals who may provide information that is useful in their social environment. Our aim is to investigate the role of shared cultural knowledge in children’s selective learning processes. In the first study, 3-year-old children were presented with videos of two models performing simple tool using actions. One of the models performed the actions in the manner that children are accustomed to while the other one violated the cultural norm. In the test phase, children watched both models demonstrate a target action with one step performed differently by the two models. Children were then allowed to reproduce the actions and choose the variant they preferred. We found that the majority imitated the step that was introduced by the conventional tool user. In the second study, we tested whether 4-year-old children understand the cultural aspect of tool functions and thus we hypothesized they would selectively assign a specific function to a new tool only when the function is demonstrated by an in-group model. Preliminary results seem to confirm this hypothesis. These results suggest that children are sensitive to the boundaries of shared knowledge and prefer to learn from those who show evidence of being knowledgeable in the ways of their culture.
The effect of language on prosocial behaviors in preschool children
Rana Esseily, Eszter Somogyi, Eszter Somogyi A-0178
The effect of language on prosocial behaviors in preschool children
Rana Esseily 1, Eszter Somogyi 2, Eszter Somogyi 1
1 Laboratoire Ethologie, Cognition, Développement, University of Nanterre, France 2 Laboratoire Psychologie de la perception, University of Paris Descartes, France

Language is one of the most important cues to group membership, helping infants to detect with whom they share the same knowledge, culture and norms. Still, we do not know much about how language guides prosocial behavior and how children select among possible social partners in helping and cooperative situations on the basis of the language the partners speak. Indeed, although in toddlers’ spontaneous helping behavior seems to be intrinsically motivated, older children show more selectivity when it comes to acting prosocially. We explored how language guides this selectivity by proposing different cooperative tasks (e.g. picking up a dropped clothespin, approaching an out-of-reach button or holding a container at the end of a tube in order to receive a ball) to French and Hungarian preschoolers between 3 and 6 years of age, with a partner who spoke either their own language or a different one. We found that language had an effect on preschoolers’ cooperative behaviors, especially between 5 and 6 years of age. Thus, 5- and 6-year-olds were slower to cooperate with a foreign speaker compared to a native one than younger children. They also needed more solicitations from the foreign speaker prior to the task than the younger ones before cooperating. We conclude that from 5 years of age, children not only start to form robust in- versus out-group categorizations according to the language spoken by their potential social partners, but also orient their cooperative behaviors accordingly, cooperating more readily with partners who share the same language.
Children’s affiliation with bystander agents affects automatic belief attribution
David Buttelmann, Frances Buttelmann A-0179
Children’s affiliation with bystander agents affects automatic belief attribution
David Buttelmann 1, Frances Buttelmann 2
1 Department of Psychology, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland 2 Cognition & Development Lab, University of Frankfurt, Frankfurt, Germany

Representing one’s own thoughts as well those of others is relevant for successful interaction with others. Thus, the question arises as to how social factors influence the attribution of mental states to other people. A factor that plays a specific role in the evaluation of other people in interaction and communication is affiliation. While we rate affiliated people more positively in terms of popularity and intelligence and elect them as reliable models more frequently, adults and children seem to overgeneralize their own perception and knowledge to their communication partner when communicating with friends. The communication with strangers, on the other hand, seems to stimulate exchange of perspectives. The current study investigated how children’s affiliation to bystander agents affected their automatic attribution of beliefs to those bystander agents. Five- to 6-year-olds played a video game in which their task was to put an animal (e.g. a cat) into one of three boxes by avoiding the one box containing an angry animal (e.g., a dog). We manipulated a bystander agent’s beliefs about the location of the angry animal. Thus, the bystander agent’s beliefs were irrelevant for children’s success in the task. We further manipulated children’s level of affiliation with this bystander agent. Preliminary results (n=33) suggest that children attribute beliefs to the bystander agents, and those beliefs affect children’s decisions. Supplementary analyses propose that children did so specifically for non-affiliated bystander agents. Thus, the influence of affiliation, demonstrated in other domains of cognition, is present also in the automatic attribution of beliefs.
15:15-17:15Poster Session A    
PA-001 Is the relevant reading always easier to process? The case of structural focus in Child Hungarian
Lilla Pintér A-0122
Is the relevant reading always easier to process? The case of structural focus in Child Hungarian
Lilla Pintér
Research Institute for Linguistics of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest, Hungary

The aim of the study is to experimentally investigate whether the use of a context highly supporting the exhaustive interpretation of structural focus construction could help preschoolers accessing the adult-like reading of utterances like (1).
(1) A farkas [A CICÁT] találta meg. ‘It is the cat that the wolf has found.’
The factors that are expected to increase the relevance of the exhaustive reading based on previous findings were the insertion of a preceding question (e.g. Who did the wolf find?), the animacy of the denotation of the focused constituent, and the givenness of potential alternatives.
In the critical non-exhaustive test trials, preschoolers (N=30, mean age: 5;7, range: 3;6–7;5) found utterances with structural focus acceptable in 55% of the test trails, indicating that despite the contextual manipulations, they mostly ignored the requirement of exhaustivity encoded by this sentence type. As the results obtained in this experiment did not differ considerably from those of the previous tasks without any broader context, we can conclude that young children not only have problems with processing this construction type in isolation, but they cannot make use of the contextual factors suggesting that the exhaustive reading is the most relevant one either. Additionally, the fact that such a major change of the experimental setting did not influence children’s performance significantly is against the hypothesis that exhaustivity expressed by structural focus is a scalar implicature, the processing of which has been proven to be significantly different in such cases.
PA-002 Do temporal delays in children’s responses modify mothers’ child-directed actions?
Eriko Yamamoto , Kaori Nagata , Kazuo Hiraki A-0128
Do temporal delays in children’s responses modify mothers’ child-directed actions?
Eriko Yamamoto 1 2, Kaori Nagata 1 2, Kazuo Hiraki 1 3
1 The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan; 2 Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, Tokyo, Japan; 3 CREST, Tokyo, Japan

Caregivers modify their child-directed actions in a number of characteristic ways, including the proportion of pauses relative to actions, exaggeration, and close proximity, for maintaining infants’ attention and improving children’s imitation behavior. However, factors related to children’s responses that modify the mothers’ actions remain unknown. We focused on the temporal contiguity between mothers’ actions and children’s responses, and examined whether children’s responses affected mothers’ actions.
Seventeen mother-child dyads participated in this study. Mean mother age was 34.82 years (SD = 4.07) and mean child age was 20.12 months (SD = 3.50). Mothers were asked to demonstrate dance sequences to their children over a color television monitor under two conditions: live and delayed. Mothers and children could interact with each other as usual in the live condition, whereas a 2-sec time lag was inserted in the delayed condition. During these demonstrations, two markers were attached to both wrists of the mothers, and then their actions were recorded by a motion-capture tracking system. The results of the motion data revealed that the total trajectory length of the wrists in the delay condition increased significantly more than in the live condition, although the children’s behaviors such as imitation score and looking times did not differ between conditions. Thus, the mothers’ actions in the delayed condition were significantly more exaggerated than in the live condition. The present study showed that the temporal delays in children’s responses affected mothers’ child-directed actions.
PA-003 The role of eye contact in acquiring new information
Cristina I. Galusca, Alveno Vitale, Martin Guida Fórneas, Luca L. Bonatti A-0146
The role of eye contact in acquiring new information
Cristina I. Galusca1, Alveno Vitale1, Martin Guida Fórneas 1, Luca L. Bonatti1,2
1 Center for Brain and Cognition, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona, Spain; 2 ICREA, Pg. Lluís Companys 23, 08010 Barcelona, Spain

Fast-mapping and “natural pedagogy” are two of the mechanisms that have been proposed for the daunting task of acquiring the enormous quantity of knowledge necessary to navigate our social world. The reciprocal influence, if any, of these mechanisms, is currently poorly explored and understood. The current studies investigate the role of eye contact on the long-term acquisition of novel names and facts induced by fast-mapping, in adults and in 5-year-old children. We evaluated the effect of eye contact on the retention of information right after the presentation and at a week interval. We find different patterns of results in children and adults. For adults, eye contact had an impact on the retention of facts, particularly of specific facts. One week after a single exposure to information where the actress made or did not make eye contact with the participants, specific facts were better remembered when presented ostensively. In children, eye contact improves long-term retention of names and facts. Interestingly, after one week, the performance for names was above chance only when the information had been presented by making eye contact. This seems to be in agreement with the “natural pedagogy” theory, which highlights the importance of ostensive cues in encoding object identity. The results suggest that in children eye contact seems to benefit the acquisition of all types of information, but especially object identity, while in adulthood it mainly improves the retention of otherwise meaningless, low-relevance, episodic information.
PA-004 Cross-domain influences of early word and action learning
Maurits Adam, Sarah Eiteljoerge, Nivedita Mani, Birgit Elsner A-0059
Cross-domain influences of early word and action learning
Maurits Adam 1, Sarah Eiteljoerge 2, Nivedita Mani 2, Birgit Elsner 1
1 Universität Potsdam, Germany 2 Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, Germany

For infants, a good strategy to learn about their surrounding world is to communicate with experienced speakers. Successful communication includes the comprehension of spoken language as well as observed actions. When a caregiver shows a new action to an infant, he or she will not only demonstrate the action for the infant to imitate, but will also use language to describe the action to the child. The infant, in turn, can use this information to learn about the action presented. There is evidence that verbal information presented during action demonstration indeed has an impact on infants' action processing and reproduction of that action. Therefore, information from the different domains might interact in social learning situations. The present research seeks to further enrich our knowledge about this interaction and investigates how different verbal information during action presentation influences subsequent action reproduction.
In a demonstration phase the experimenter will show 18- and 24-month-old infants two actions, each performed with one out of two objects, accompanied by verbal information. This information, depending on the experimental condition, will emphasize either the movement, the object acted upon, both, or none of it. After this demonstration, in an imitation phase, the infants will act on real-life versions of the objects. We expect that the infants will integrate the verbal information into their cognitive action-representation, and therefore we expect differences in action reproduction between our experimental conditions. The planned research will therefore shed light on mutual influences in the early development of language and action.
PA-005 Infant-directed speech effects in adult artificial grammar learning
Krisztina Sára Lukics, Ágnes Lukács A-0105
Infant-directed speech effects in adult artificial grammar learning
Krisztina Sára Lukics, Ágnes Lukács
Department of Cognitive Science, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Budapest, Hungary

Artificial grammar learning is often understood as a model of grammar acquisition in child language development. While we know that first language acquisition is facilitated by several characteristics of infant directed-speech (IDS) such as the use of shorter sentences and exaggerated prosody, we know little about how these factors influence learning in adults, and what their relative contribution is to learning different aspects of language. The Starting Small hypothesis assumes that incremental presentation of stimuli of different length has a facilitating effect on language acquisition. Prosody indicating syntactic boundaries also has beneficial effect on learning a grammar in AGL studies with adult subjects. We examined the effects of these two characteristics of IDS together with their interaction further on the acquisition of a simple artificial language: 1) incremental presentation of strings starting with the shorter ones (’starting small’) versus random presentation of strings of different length, 2) presenting the strings with prosody indicating phrase boundaries versus monotonous or arbitrary prosody. We hypothesised that ‘starting small’ would be more efficient than learning with random presentation, and that prosody indicating phrase boundaries would lead to more successful learning than monotonous or arbitrary prosody. Presenting shorter strings before longer ones lead to significantly higher learning on the task, and the presence of prosody marking phrase boundaries had the same effect, but these beneficial effects were not additive. Our results suggest that characteristics of infant-directed speech may support grammar acquisition in the case of adult learners as well.
PA-006 Cyberbullying research: A new perspective
Nikolett Arató, Beatrix Lábadi, Katalin Lénárd A-0150
Cyberbullying research: A new perspective
Nikolett Arató, Beatrix Lábadi, Katalin Lénárd
University of Pécs, Pécs, Hungary

In the last few years, cyberbullying has became a popular research topic. In our study, we created a new empirical method to explore cyberbullying and further on we took our focus on mentalization. The purpose of our study was to examine which factors (mentalization, empathy, school climate, anger expression style) determine how adolescents react to cyberbullying. An other aim was to discover student’s mentalization processes during cyberbullying: what do they think about the victim’s emotions, inner states.
113 students (65 boys and 48 girls) participated in the study, their average age was 17,5 (SD=0,73) years. In the first section of the study participants had to answer mentalization-related questions after reading stories about cyberbullying and everyday situations. The second part of the study consisted of the following questionnaires: Cyber Victim and Bullying Scale was used to determine their role in cyberbullying, Interpersonal Reactivity Index to measure empathy, Reading the Minds in Films Test to measure mentalization, Anger Expression Scale, and a questionnaire to explore school climate.
The results of our study demonstrate that mentalization processes are important in connection with cyberbullying: Being a cyberbully was determined by mentalization deficit and negative school climate. Most of the participants deemed the victims to feel humiliated, depressed, frightened, however those who were cyberbullies thought the victims don’t feel negative emotions.
Our results about the importance of mentalization in cyberbullying might contribute to better prevention and furthermore the results emphasize the importance of understanding what cyberbullies think about the consequences of cyberbullying on victims.
PA-007 Looking and reaching preferences for faces in 9-month-old infants
Natasa Ganea, Jen Haensel, Atsushi Senju A-0101
Looking and reaching preferences for faces in 9-month-old infants
Natasa Ganea 1, Jen Haensel 2, Atsushi Senju 2
1 Goldsmiths, University of London; 2 CBCD, Birkbeck, University of London

Is infants' preference for faces specific to their looking behaviour, or does it also extend to their reaching? To answer this question, pictures of faces and other distracting images (i.e. pictures of cars, mobile phones, and scrambled faces) were affixed to the lid of small plastic containers. The containers were mounted on a sliding frame which, when it was pushed forward, allowed the objects to emerge from behind window shutters. When the infant reached for a container, this was removed from the frame and handed to the infant. Thirteen 9-month-old infants participated in this study. Infants' eye movements during the first 5 seconds of the trial were recorded using a head-mounted eye-tracker, and the identity of the object reached for was coded based on the eye-tracking footage. The results revealed an increased dwell time on faces at the beginning of the trial, and a marginal trend to forage the faces more than the distracters. Infants' proportion of first looks to the faces was not significantly different from the proportion of first looks to the distracters. A significant reaching preference for faces was found. No difference between the dwell time on faces and that on distracters was identified in those trials which resulted in a stimulus being reached for, possibly due to a small sample size. The results replicate previous findings regarding infants' propensity to look at faces, and inform the developmental literature about the factors that might influence reaching preferences in infants.
PA-008 The connection between pragmatic competence and Theory of mind in bilingual children
Rebeka Jávor A-0065
The connection between pragmatic competence and Theory of mind in bilingual children
Rebeka Jávor 1
University of Pécs, Institute of Psychology, Evolutionary and Cognitive Doctoral Program Pécs Hungary


Theory of mind (ToM) is an important milestone in the development of pragmatic skills, so the present study aimed to investigate the differences of pragmatic competence and the cognitive mechanisms behind it between bi- and monolingual children.
In our earlier study (in other studies as well), we found that bilingual individuals solve ToM tasks based on perspective taking more easily as monolinguals, and that this skill develops faster in bilinguals thanks to the socio-cultural environment. It is assumed that the bilingual socio-cultural environment plays an important role, where the child recognizes that someone uses a different language code, so s/he has a different mental state. In these situations bilinguals must decide which of their known languages will be successful in terms of a proper communication (pragmatic differentiation). Because of this kind of socio-cultural environment ToM develops faster, thus pragmatic competence as well.
We compared 60, 3-4 old children (bilingual Hungarian-Serbian and monolingual Hungarian speakers) using a pragmatic competence test, which was made by Schnell, 2012 and standardized by us (Jávor-Schnell). This test measures verbal and non-verbal ToM ability, metaphor, humor, irony processing and conversational abilities.
We assume that bilingual children will outperform monolingual participants, because of the early bilingual socio-cultural environment, where they are exposed to two different languages, and they always have to choose the language the interlocutor could understand.
Keywords: bilingualism, pragmatic competence, Theory of mind
PA-009 Does group membership affect overimitation in preschoolers?
Hanna Schleihauf, Sabina Dauen, Stefanie Hoehl A-0045
Does group membership affect overimitation in preschoolers?
Hanna Schleihauf 1, Sabina Dauen 2, Stefanie Hoehl 3
Heidelberg University, Heidelberg, Germany

This study investigates whether group membership enhances overimitation in five-year-olds.
In two conditions (each n=28) the child and two experimenters drew t-shirts out of a box before the overimitation-task started. One experimenter drew a t-shirt in the same color as the child’s and the second experimenter another color. In the shirts-condition experimenters accepted the result neutrally. In the teams-condition both experimenters expressed joy about the drawn color and announced a competitive game. In a no-groups-condition there was no group formation.
Next, children observed both experimenters retrieve a reward from a transparent puzzle-box: First, one experimenter using non-functional and functional actions, second, another experimenter using only functional actions. In the conditions with group formation the inefficient strategy was performed by the in-group-experimenter and the efficient strategy by the out-group-experimenter. After each demonstration, children removed a reward. In a baseline-condition (n=16) children saw no prior demonstration.
After the inefficient demonstration children in all three experimental conditions performed significantly more irrelevant actions than children in the baseline-condition (no-group-conditions: p<.000; shirts-condition: p<.000; teams-condition: p<.000).
After the efficient demonstration children in the no-group-condition as well as in the shirts-condition did not perform more irrelevant actions than children in the baseline-condition (no-group-condition: p=.573; shirts-condition: p=.338). Children in the teams-condition performed significantly more irrelevant actions than children in the baseline-condition even after seeing the efficient out group-demonstration (p=.001).

Results show that the perseverance of overimitation depends on whether child and model belong to the same group. Emphasized team-membership, but not t-shirt color alone, elicited this effect.
PA-010 A longitudinal study on learning spatial language in the first two years
Yağmur Deniz Kısa, Aslı Aktan Erciyes, Tilbe Göksun A-0121
A longitudinal study on learning spatial language in the first two years
Yağmur Deniz Kısa 1, Aslı Aktan Erciyes 1,2, Tilbe Göksun 1
1 Koç University, Istanbul, Turkey; 2 Boğaziçi University, Istanbul, Turkey

Parents’ use of spatial language and gestures are closely linked to children’s spatial language development (Cartmill et al., 2010; Pruden et al., 2011). We ask whether (1)children’s early understanding of spatial language influence later parental input and (2)parents’ use of spatial language and gestures influence children’s later spatial language skills. Turkish-learning children were tested at three time points. Parents evaluated their children’s vocabulary knowledge using the Turkish version of Communicative Development Inventory (CDI) at Time 1 (Mage=14.21months, n=35) and Time 3 (Mage=24.45 months, n=22). At Time 2, children (Mage=18.55 months, n=35) played with their parents in a puzzle-solving setting. For parent speech, we classified spatial terms into three categories: (1)‘what’ information including size, shape, features of objects (e.g., big, circle, edge), (2)‘where’ information including location, orientation, and deictics (e.g., under, turn, here), (3)motion and spatial verbs. Parents’ and children’s gestures were coded as referring to one of these categories in the form of pointing, iconic or holding puzzle pieces. Children’s verb and preposition comprehension at Time 1 correlated with parents’ overall spatial language use at Time 2 (r=.45, p<.05). Parents’ use of the ‘what’ aspect of spatial language at Time 2 was related to children’s knowledge of prepositions at Time 3 (r=.58, p<.05), but not their knowledge of verbs or overall vocabulary. There was no correlation between parents’ gesture production and children’s later spatial language. These findings suggest that parents adjust their spatial language based on children’s spatial knowledge that will also relate to children’s later spatial language.
PA-011 Motor ability and social interaction skills enable infants to help
Masaki Omori, Moritz Köster, Shoji Itakura, Joscha Kärtner A-0138
Motor ability and social interaction skills enable infants to help
Masaki Omori 1, Moritz Köster 2, Shoji Itakura 1, Joscha Kärtner 2
1 Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan; 2 University of Münster, Münster, Germany

Infants start to help others in the beginning of the second year. Although helping behaviors are often interpreted as indicators of infant’s early altruistic tendencies, the cognitive and motivational underpinnings underlying early helping behavior are still unclear. In the present study we show that 16-month old infants’ helping behavior is intended to benefit others, indicated by the close link between infant’s understanding of other’s needs and their helping behavior. Importantly, the link established by infant’s fine motor abilities and social interaction skills. Thus, this findings indicate that infant’s motor and social interaction skills enable to put their understanding of other’s needs into prosocial actions. In addition, infant’s fine and gross motor abilities as well as their social engagement with the experimenter were closely related to infant’s helping behavior. We assume that their motor skills provide infant with an emerging awareness for their competencies to help others in need. It may be not only the prosocial intention, but also an awareness of themselves as helper and the motivation to interact with others socially that take important role in the emergence of infant’s helping behavior.
PA-012 The role of nonverbal behavior during book reading on language development
İlkim Sarıçimen, Buse Ölmez, Ayça Başçı, Niloofar Akhavan, Aslı Aktan Erciyes & Tilbe Göksun A-0119
The role of nonverbal behavior during book reading on language development
İlkim Sarıçimen 1, Buse Ölmez 2, Ayça Başçı 3, Niloofar Akhavan 1, Aslı Aktan Erciyes 1,4 & Tilbe Göksun 1
1Koç University, Istanbul, Turkey 2Özyeğin University, Istanbul, Turkey 3 Bilkent University, Ankara, Turkey 4 Boğaziçi University, Istanbul, Turkey

Parents’ verbal input during joint book reading is related to children’s language development (de Temple & Snow, 2003). Also, gesture use by the parents in joint book reading sessions correlates with children’s later language production (Rowe & Pan, 2004; Rohlfing et al., 2015). In the current study, we examine the role of representational gestures and other nonverbal prompts (e.g., touching the book for attention) during joint book reading sessions on children’s later language development. Additionally, we also ask whether parents use different nonverbal behavior based on children’s earlier vocabulary knowledge.
Thirty-five children between the ages of 16 and 21 months (M=18.30, SD=1.57) participated in a book reading session with their parents. Both parents’ and children’s nonverbal behavior were coded and classified as: representational gestures (pointing and iconic), directed touching (touching the book to draw attention), holding the book, free play (hands moving not in relation to the book content). Parents evaluated their children’s vocabulary knowledge at two time points (4-5 months prior to and after these sessions), using the Turkish Communicative Development Inventory (CDI).
Preliminary results showed that parents’ nonverbal prompts such as directing attention for objects on the book correlated with children’s use of the same strategies during joint book reading r(35)=.577, p=0.01, and was related to children’s earlier word comprehension, r(35)=.504, p=0.01. Parents’ representational gesture use did not correlate with the language measures. Detailed speech and gesture coding is currently underway. The preliminary findings highlight the importance examining various nonverbal behavior on children’s language development.
PA-013 Task-Switching and Modality-Shifting across Development
Anna Peng, Denis Mareschal, Natasha Kirkham A-0041
Task-Switching and Modality-Shifting across Development
Anna Peng, Denis Mareschal, Natasha Kirkham
Birkbeck, University of London, London, United Kingdom

The ability to direct attention at will in a multisensory environment underlies cognitive flexibility. Using unimodal task-switching (UTS) and cross-modal task-switching paradigm (CMTS), the study explored developmental changes in attention control of switching between tasks and shifting between modalities.

We carried out two experiments with 4-year-olds, 6-year-olds and adults: unimodal visual task-switching (N=73) and cross-modal task-switching (N=76). In both experiments, participants were asked to press a key whenever they detected the target category. There were two conditions— a pure condition involving a single target category, and a mixed condition involving frequent switches between two different target categories. All stimuli in UTS were visual and all stimuli in CMTS were audiovisual. The stimuli were pairings of two incongruent stimulus categories (e.g. a dog picture paired with a car picture in UTS, or a visual ‘dog’ with a ‘sheep’ sound in CMTS). Response latency costs in task-switching (vs. task-repetition), and modality-shifting (vs. modality-repetition) were analysed.

Task-switch cost was significant (p<.001) and was larger for younger children, indicating that the efficiency in switching to a different mindset matures with age. There was also a modality shift cost (p<.001), but there was no interaction with age. Modality shift cost was asymmetric, as it was found only for auditory targets but not visual targets.

Overall, the study revealed that only task-switching was dependent on developmentally-sensitive endogenous control, but not modality-shifting. Across all ages, shifting attention to visual targets incurs less modality-shift cost than shifting attention to auditory targets.
PA-014 Infants expect giving and taking to cue mutually exclusive social relations
Barbara Pomiechowska, Denis Tatone, Gergely Csibra A-0163
Infants expect giving and taking to cue mutually exclusive social relations
Barbara Pomiechowska, Denis Tatone, Gergely Csibra
Cognitive Development Center, Department of Cognitive Science, Central European University, Budapest, Hungary

Recent findings suggest that infants interpret giving and taking actions as cues to social relations regulated onto different and mutually incompatible relational models (equality matching and communal sharing, respectively: Tatone & Csibra, 2013). If so, infants should expect a social relation to be supported by only one type of transferring action, since multiple actions would otherwise cue mutually contradictory models. Across five looking-time studies, we tested whether 12-month-olds use this “principle of relational consistency” (PRC) in determining the number of dyadic relations that an agent participates in.

In Study 1, infants were familiarized to two separate events involving an agent emerging from behind the occluder, giving or taking an object to/from a patient, and going back behind the occluder. At test, infants saw a new agent interacting twice (by giving and then taking) with a new patient. At the end of the second action, the occluder was removed to reveal one or two (identical) agents. Infants looked longer at the the single-agent outcome, suggesting that they inferred two agents behind the occluder (Giver and Taker), instead of a single one (Giver/Taker), consistently with the PRC. Further studies showed that infants did not individuate agents via trait ascription (a Giver should not be a Taker: Study 2) or efficiency analysis (agents should select the shortest path to approach the patients: Study 3). We are currently exploring whether infants prioritize relational or featural information for agent individuation purposes in the present paradigm (Studies 4 & 5).
PA-015 When do we learn to fear? A visual search paradigm study on fear acquisition in preschool children
Andras Zsido, Adrienn Losonci, Akos Arato, Diana Stecina, Laszlo Bernath A-0008
When do we learn to fear? A visual search paradigm study on fear acquisition in preschool children
Andras Zsido 1, Adrienn Losonci 1, Akos Arato 1, Diana Stecina 1, Laszlo Bernath 2
1 Institute of Psychology, Pécs, Hungary; 2 Faculty of Education and Psychology, Budapest, Hungary

Past research claimed that children from as early as 3 years of age detect evolutionary fearsome stimuli (e.g. snake) faster than neutral ones (e.g. caterpillar). It was also shown that they detect modern threat-relevant stimuli faster (e.g. needle) than those they did not have previous experience with (compared to e.g. a gun); or than neutral ones (e.g. toaster). However, the two fearsome categories have never been compared and were only examined with distractors of the same evolutionary age. In the current experiment, we sought to explore the similarities and differences between evolutionary old (snakes, spiders) and modern (knife, gun) threat-relevant cues.
We recruited 34 preschool children, aged 5-7. They watched a series of stimuli and responded on a touchscreen monitor. Nine pictures were shown at a time in a 3x3 grid: Eight of them were neutral distractors of the same category (modern – toasters or evolutionary – flowers); while there was always a fearsome target (gun, knife, snake, or spider).
Strikingly, we found that children could detect both evolutionary old and modern threat-relevant stimuli equally fast. However, there is an interaction between the distractors and the targets. Further analyses revealed that children found evolutionary old threat-relevant stimuli faster than modern ones among modern distractors; however, they were faster to detect modern threats than evolutionary cues among evolutionary old distractors.
These results provide the first evidence that preschool children detect modern and evolutionary old threat-relevant stimuli at the same speed; while also underline the role of the context during this process.
PA-016 Infants’ visual art preferences
Can Carkoglu, Aslı Aktan Erciyes , Anjan Chatterjee, & Tilbe Göksun A-0123
Infants’ visual art preferences
Can Carkoglu 1, Aslı Aktan Erciyes 1 2, Anjan Chatterjee 3, & Tilbe Göksun 1
1 Koç University, Istanbul, Turkeyrn2 Boğaziçi University, Istanbul, Turkeyrn3 University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, US

How do young children experience art and what guides their preferences for artwork? Research on how very young children experience art and what influences their preferences in artwork is very scarce. Previous studies mainly focused on categorization of artwork based on abstract elements (Cacchione et al., 2011;Krentz & Earl, 2013). Here, we examine infants’ visual preferences of different artwork. In particular, we asked whether Turkish-reared infants prefer to look longer to abstract art compared to representational art after a very brief exposure to each type of painting.

Using a preferential looking paradigm, 24 14-month-olds were first presented a total of 8 different artworks by Monet (representational) and Pollock (abstract). Then, at test infants were presented two types of trials (4 trials in total): within-artwork condition (two Monet paintings or two Pollock paintings were shown) and between-artwork condition (one Monet and one Pollock painting were shown). The trials were counterbalanced. Looking times to the artworks in each test trial were calculated.

Results indicated that even though infants were attentive during the entire experiment (looked at the paintings in an average of 79% of their time), they did not have any preference to one type of painting over another in any of the test trials, ps>.05. This result was not in accordance with the previous categorization findings. In our current work, we try to identify visual attributes that can be universally preferred (such as the balance within the paintings) as well as those that can diverge across development and culture.

PA-017 Incidental leaning and cognitive load in a multisensory environment across childhood
Hannah Broadbent, Tamsin Osborne, Michaela Rea, Anna Peng, Denis Mareschal, Natasha Kirkham A-0063
Incidental leaning and cognitive load in a multisensory environment across childhood
Hannah Broadbent, Tamsin Osborne, Michaela Rea, Anna Peng, Denis Mareschal, Natasha Kirkham
Centre for Brain and Cognitive Development, Birkbeck, University of London, London, UK

Multisensory information has been shown to modulate attention in infants and adults (e.g., Bahrick, Flom & Lickliter, 2002; Shams & Seitz, 2008); and facilitate incidental category learning as early as 5 years (Broadbent et al., in prep). However, during the primary school years, voluntary control of attention is not strongly represented (Ruff & Rothbart, 1996), and the extent to which a concurrent unisensory or multisensory cognitive load would interfere with or support incidental category learning during this time remains unclear.
We examined the role of concurrent task modality on incidental category learning in 5-10 year olds. Participants selected target stimuli whilst also engaging in either a unisensory (visual or auditory only) or multisensory (audiovisual) concurrent detection task (CDT). Here, participants either counted the number of stars (visual), dings (auditory) or dinging stars (audiovisual) that occurred, depending on their allocated CDT condition. Participants subsequently completed a categorical knowledge task to examine the extent of incidental learning of target categories.
Results found that auditory CDT lead to poorer performance compared to audiovisual on incidental category learning, across groups. At 5 years of age, category test performance was at chance in the auditory-only CDT condition, suggesting auditory concurrent tasks may interfere with learning in younger children, but the addition of visual information may serve to focus attention.
These findings provide important insight into the use of multisensory information on incidental learning. Implications for the deployment of multisensory learning tasks within education across development and developmental changes in modality dominance are discussed.
PA-018 Eliciting grammatical knowledge of bilingual children with the help of MAIN
Natalia Ringblom Elena Galkina Grant RSF --0 A-0057
Eliciting grammatical knowledge of bilingual children with the help of MAIN
Natalia Ringblom 1 Elena Galkina 2 Grant RSF 14-18-03668
1 Stockholm University, Sweden; 2 St. Petersburg. Russian Academy of Sciences;

Our purpose is to show how MAIN (Multilingual Assessment Instrument for Narratives, Gagarina et al. 2012) can be used for testing grammatical knowledge of bilingual children, with special focus on identifying bilingual features in the children’s morphosyntax. It is important for speech therapists to be aware of the underlying problems of the children's language abilities in order to guide intervention process and give the children effective assistance. The sample consists of the narratives of typically developing Russian–Dutch and Russian – Swedish bilingual children (age 4-6, n=36). The narratives were transcribed according to the CHILDES conventions (Mac Whinney, 2010) and analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively, focusing specifically on the acquisition of gender and case.
The results show that the children’s mistakes are not homogenous but range from (1) those mistakes that are typical for monolingual TD children, to (2) those mistakes that were characteristic of children with SLA, and (3) the mistakes found in SLI population. The mistakes detected as well as the differences between the children are discussed on the background of the amount of input the children received (as reported by the parents). Agreement and case errors have been identified as clinical markers of SLI (Rothweiler, Chilla & Babur 2010). Yet, in our data they were present in a weaker language of TD children as well, which brings new insights in the under-investigated field: the weaker language of typically developing bilingual children (without language pathology).
PA-019 Infant recognition memory for unfamiliar faces with emotional expressions
Satoshi Nakashima, Ryoko Mugitani, Masatoshi Ukezono, Akiko Hayashi A-0083
Infant recognition memory for unfamiliar faces with emotional expressions
Satoshi Nakashima1, Ryoko Mugitani 1, Masatoshi Ukezono 2, Akiko Hayashi 2
1 NTT Communication Science Laboratories; 2 Tokyo Gakugei University

Adults memorize happy faces better than angry faces (D’Argembeau et al., 2003). The present study examined whether or not infant face memory is also affected by emotional facial expressions. Twenty-four infants aged 6, 10 and 14 months participated, and each infant was first presented with a target face with either an angry or a happy expression for 10 s (learning phase). After a 1 min retention interval, the infant was presented with a target face and a novel face side by side with neutral expressions (test phase) for 20 s. The novelty preference score (NPS) was calculated, which is the percentage of the total looking time in the test phase that the infant spent fixating on a novel face. A 3 (Age: 6, 10, 14 months) X 2 (Emotion: angry, happy) two-way ANOVA on the NPS indicated the Age X Emotion interaction (p<.05). Subsequent analysis revealed that 6-month-old infants had a higher NPS when they learned a face with an angry expression than one with a happy expression. In contrast, 10-month-old infants had a higher NPS when they learned a face with a happy expression than one with an angry expression. The NPS for 14-month-old infants remained unchanged whatever the expression. The opposite results with 6- and 10-month-old infants may reflect the development of an understanding the meaning of facial expression, i.e., 6-month-olds memorize angry faces better because the expression is merely unfamiliar and interesting whereas 10-month-olds understand the emotional attributes of the expressions.
PA-020 Socio-pragmatic competence and cognitive abilities: Preliminary data from the Finnish Pragma test on a sample of Italian normally-developing children.
Ilaria Gabbatore, Francesca M. Bosco, Leena Mäkinen, Soile Loukusa A-0024
Socio-pragmatic competence and cognitive abilities: Preliminary data from the Finnish Pragma test on a sample of Italian normally-developing children.
Ilaria Gabbatore 1,2*, Francesca M. Bosco 2,3, Leena Mäkinen 1, Soile Loukusa 1
1 Research Unit of Logopedics, Child Language Research Center, Faculty of Humanities, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland. 2 Center for Cognitive Science, Department of Psychology, University of Turin, Turin, Italy. 3 Neuroscience Institute of Torino, University of Turin, Turin, Italy.

Socio-pragmatics refers to how language is used for communicative purposes in specific contexts. It’s a complex ability, involving cognitive abilities and social cognition (Cummings, 2009). Such components develop with age making children able to deal with more sophisticated communicative phenomena, such as deceit or irony (Bosco et al., 2013). Despite the relevance in the diagnosis of social (pragmatic) disorder (DSM-5; APA, 2013) the exact role of cognitive components in pragmatic abilities is not clear yet. Aim of the study is to present preliminary data concerning the development of socio-pragmatic performance and its relation with other cognitive abilities. 80 Italian normally-developing children, 4-8 years of age, were tested through the Pragma test (Loukusa, 2009), adapted from Finnish within the present study to investigate children’s understanding of contextual and social meanings. Neuropsychological profile was assessed with Nepsy-II (Korkman et al., 2007) in terms of language, attention, memory, theory of mind and social perception. Preliminary analyses regarding the pragmatic performance show an effect of both the type of tasks (F = 26.7; p < .001) and the age (F = 78.88; p < .001). Moreover, strong correlation between pragmatic and cognitive performances were detected (.76 < r < .87; p < .001). Such data represent an important baseline to better understand the relation between pragmatics and cognitive profile in pathological conditions. Moreover, since data from an analogues Finnish sample are also available, they also provide useful information in a cross-cultural perspective, allowing the comparison of cultural factors and their consequent variability.
PA-021 From 7 years, children’s asymmetrical estimations of gains and losses predicts sharing behaviour
Erin Robbins, Philippe Rochat A-0042
From 7 years, children’s asymmetrical estimations of gains and losses predicts sharing behaviour
Erin Robbins 1,2, Philippe Rochat 2
1 School of Psychology & Neuroscience, University of St Andrews, UK; 2 Department of Psychology, Emory University, Atlanta, USA

We investigated whether affective forecasting—such as overestimating negativity associated with having less (loss aversion; Kahneman & Tversky, 1986)—motivates children’s sharing. Sixty children (3-7 years) learned to accurately estimate the height of white sand in a transparent tube as 1 scoop (60mL) was added (gain) or removed (loss). Next, a sleeve fit over the tube rendered it opaque, and plain white sand was replaced with valuable, “magical” blue sand that could be exchanged for desirable prizes. In successive conditions, children estimated gains/losses for themselves and a partner. In a counterbalanced sharing task, children also distributed “magical sand” between themselves and their partner. Based on early emerging biases to negative outcomes (Vaish et al., 2008), we anticipated children would overestimate losses relative to gains, and that this overestimation would predict selfish sharing.In general, and controlling for conservation reasoning, children were more accurate estimating another’s gains/losses than their own. 3-year-olds significantly overestimated personal gains, whereas 5 year-olds overestimated losses. At 7 years children demonstrated true loss aversion by significantly overestimating loss while simultaneously underestimating gains for themselves, but not others. Additionally, the magnitude of asymmetry between personal loss/gain estimations predicted sharing behavior: children who overestimated loss were more selfish. Our results suggest the tendency to self-maximize may be partly based on children’s over-inflated perception of personal losses relative to gains. That this asymmetry does not apply to estimations made for others may explain why young children tend to be more equitable in third party sharing (Olson & Spelke, 2008).
PA-022 Children’s Expectations About the Homogeneity of Out-Groups: Evidence From Their Sampling Strategies
Reut Shilo, Anika Weinsdörfer, Hannes Rakoczy, and Gil Diesendruck A-0087
Children’s Expectations About the Homogeneity of Out-Groups: Evidence From Their Sampling Strategies
Reut Shilo 1, Anika Weinsdörfer 2, Hannes Rakoczy 2, and Gil Diesendruck 1
1 Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan, Israel 2 University of Göttingen, Göttingen, Germany

Adults are prone to represent out-groups as more homogeneous than in-groups. We tested whether this so-called “out-group homogeneity effect” holds true for children, by assessing the type of sample – homogeneous or heterogeneous – children choose in order to make inferences about properties of a whole group (either in- or out-group).
Five- and eight-year-old Israeli Jews (n=71) were confronted with a series of questions, each asking whether a particular property was true of an entire group. To answer, they could assess one of two given samples: a homogeneous (e.g., “these three fathers”) sample or a heterogeneous (“this father, this child, and this grandfather”) sample. Thus, the type of sample children chose for their inferences was the crucial outcome. Half of the questions were about children’s in-group (Jews) and half about a salient out-group (Arabs); half of the properties were biological traits, and half were psychological.
Overall, 8-year-olds selected more diverse samples than 5-year-olds, F(1,69)=8.52, p=0.005. More importantly, across ages, the analyses revealed an interaction between group-membership and trait-type. Specifically, when asked about biological traits, children chose the homogeneous samples more often for questions about the out-group compared to questions about the in-group, F(1,69)=5.68, p<0.05. This is consistent with the notion that children believe that in their biological essences, out-group members are more alike than in-group members, and therefore the former do not require a diverse sample in-order to generalize about the whole group. This bias is consistent with an essentialist construal of out-groups.
PA-023 Preschoolers attribute relative physical and social power from faces and postures
Brandon F. Terrizzi Elizabeth Brey Kristin Shutts Jonathan S. Beier A-0155
Preschoolers attribute relative physical and social power from faces and postures
Brandon F. Terrizzi 1 Elizabeth Brey 2 Kristin Shutts 3 Jonathan S. Beier 1
1 University of Maryland, College Park 2 University of Hawaii at Manoa 3 University of Madison-Wisconsin

Children are sensitive to interpersonal dominance, but it is unclear whether they distinguish between physical and social power. For instance, although preschoolers rate some faces as “stronger” than others (Cogsdill et al., 2014) and expansive bodily postures as being “in charge” (Brey & Shutts, 2015), possible connections between these impressions are unknown. We investigated this issue in two ways.

In Task 1, 3-, 4-, and 5-year-olds and adults (N = 32/10/24/32 of 32) viewed paired images of people varying on face structure or posture. In a prior norming study, adults had rated the characters individually as high or low in “dominance”. Here, participants labeled which person was “stronger” or “in charge”, without feedback. Four- and 5-year-olds (but not 3-year-olds) chose the expected characters for all stimulus-category/power-type combinations. Adults chose the expected character except when attributing strength on the basis of posture. Task 2 assessed whether the same children were sensitive to potential correspondences between facial and postural power cues. Four- and 5-year-olds (but not 3-year-olds) matched cutouts of the faces and body images in the anticipated fashion.

These findings provide insight into the conceptual organization of children’s developing notions of power. Around 4 years, children infer both physical and social power from both facial and postural information. Moreover, their facility at the matching task suggests that these cues evoke power representations in a common format, or at least formats similar enough to be aligned. Finally, adults’ later restrictions on some power inferences hint at subsequent revision of specific cue/attribution associations.
PA-024 Preverbal infants affirm third party interventions aiding victims from aggressors.
Yasuhiro Kanakog, Yasuyuki Inoue, Goh Matsuda, David Butler, Kazuo Hiraki, Masako Myowa-Yamakoshi A-0086
Preverbal infants affirm third party interventions aiding victims from aggressors.
Yasuhiro Kanakog1,2, Yasuyuki Inoue 3, Goh Matsuda 4, David Butler5, Kazuo Hiraki 3, Masako Myowa-Yamakoshi 5
1 NTT Communication Science Laboratories, Kyoto, Japan; 2 Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, Tokyo, Japan; 3 The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan; 4 Kyoto Prefectural university of Medicine, Kyoto, Japan; 5 Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan.

Protective interventions by a third party on the behalf of others are generally admired, and as such are associated with our notions of morality, justice, and heroism (Darley & Pittman, 2003; Kinsella, Ritchie, & Igou, 2014; Walker & Henning, 2004). Indeed, stories involving such third party interventions have pervaded popular culture throughout recorded human history (e.g., myths, books, and movies). The current developmental picture is that we begin to engage in this type of intervention by preschool age. For instance, 3-year old children intervene in harmful interactions to protect victims from bullies (Vaish, Missana, & Tomasello, 2011), and furthermore, not only punish wrongdoers but also give priority to helping the victim (Riedl, Jensen, Call, & Tomasello, 2015). It remains unknown, however, when we begin to affirm such interventions performed by others. Here we reveal these developmental origins in 6 and 10-month old infants (N = 132). After watching aggressive interactions involving a third party agent who either interfered or did not, 6-month old infants preferred the former (Ex. 1). Subsequent experiments confirmed the psychological processes underlying such choices: 6-month olds regarded the interfering agent to be protecting the victim from the aggressor (Ex. 2-4). These findings shed light upon the developmental trajectory of perceiving, understanding, and performing protective third-party interventions, suggesting that our admiration for and emphasis upon such acts – so prevalent in thousands of stories across human cultures – is rooted within the preverbal infant’s mind.

PA-025 Limitations in Children’s Induction of the Cardinality Principle: Evidence from the Give-A-Number Task with Higher Quantities
Madeleine Barclay, Pierina Cheung, Anna Shusterman A-0071
Limitations in Children’s Induction of the Cardinality Principle: Evidence from the Give-A-Number Task with Higher Quantities
Madeleine Barclay, Pierina Cheung, Anna Shusterman
Wesleyan University, Middletown, Connecticut, USA

According to most accounts of number word learning, when children acquire the cardinal principle (becoming “CP-knowers”), they understand how to use counting to correctly generate sets of any size within their count list. However, previous studies rarely ask children to produce sets larger than six, and thus, the depth and extent of their understanding of large numbers remains undetermined. The current study aims to fill this gap by asking CP-knowers to generate large sets through counting. In two experiments, we tested children aged 3 to 5 with a range of large numbers (7-16) in the Give-A-Number task. Results showed that almost all CP-knowers were able to produce set sizes up to 12, providing support that CP-knowers can apply the counting principles to sets larger than four. However, across both experiments, children could not reliably generate the largest set even when it was within their count list. Together, these findings suggest that, contrary to the frequent assumption that CP-knowers can generate any set size in their count list, children initially generalize the cardinality principle only to a limited range of numbers. Implications for theories of children’s acquisition of counting are discussed.
PA-026 Infants transfer visual responses from rewards to reward predictive cues
Kristen Tummeltshammer, Dima Amso A-0015
Infants transfer visual responses from rewards to reward predictive cues
Kristen Tummeltshammer, Dima Amso
Brown University, Providence, RI, USA

The goal of learning is to minimize the discrepancy between the brain’s stored predictions and new environmental input (i.e., prediction error). A key feature of learning from prediction error is the ability to transfer reward value from a stimulus to reward predictive cues. Using eye-tracking, we investigated whether 7-month-old infants would demonstrate transfer of visual responses from rewards onto reward predictive cues. Twenty infants (M=7 months, 8.3 days) were presented with high and low reward faces (i.e., infant’s own mother or an unfamiliar female), and high and low reward cartoons (i.e., colorful, dynamic with sound or gray-scale, static without sound). Rewards appeared in isolation and then paired with unique shapes in 24 randomized spatial cueing trials. Infants looked longer at high reward cartoons than low reward cartoons; critically, this distribution of looking times transferred to the cues, as infants looked longer at cues paired with dynamic cartoons than with static cartoons. Infants’ pupil dilations were larger for high reward faces than low reward faces; this pattern also transferred to the cues, as infants’ pupil dilations were larger at post-test for cues paired with their own mother’s face than with an unfamiliar female face. Different patterns of transfer observed in infants’ looking times and pupil dilations may reflect separate contributions of attention and arousal to reward prediction learning. Lastly, infants had faster saccades to cues that preceded high reward faces than low reward faces, suggesting that spatio-temporal learning is modulated by the reward value of predicted stimuli in infancy.
PA-027 Developmental trajectory of the sensitivity to Gricean Maxims
Schnell, Zs. - Járai, R. A-0002
Developmental trajectory of the sensitivity to Gricean Maxims
Schnell, Zs. 1 - Járai, R. 2
Department of Linguistics 1, Institute of Psychology 2, University of Pécs, Hungary

Background: The central claim of the present research is that social-cognitive skills play a significant role in inferential meaning construction. Children passing the False Belief Test are significantly more successful in tasks measuring the recognition of the infringement of conversational maxims. The study also draws up a developmental trajectory of the maxims, revealing the cognitive difficulty of their interpretation, their relative place to each other, and the order they may follow in development.
Aims and method: Preschoolers’ conversational skills and pragmatic competence is examined in view of their mentalization skills. We measure preschoolers’ ToM performance with a first- and a second order ToM task, and compare participants’ ability to recognize the infringement of the Gricean maxims in view of their social cognitive skills. In doing so we use a measure of linguistic tasks, containing 5 short scenarios for each Gricean maxim.
Results: Theory of Mind proved to be a significant factor in predicting the group’s performance and success rates in 3 out of 4 maxim infringement recognition tasks, namely, in the Quantity, Relevance and Manner conditions, but not in the Quality condition. We conclude that ToM has a predictive force of 75% concerning the ability to follow Gricean maxims efficiently.
Conclusions: Our findings confirm that children’s communicative competence in social contexts, to some extent, requires the development of higher-order social-cognitive reasoning. The results also reflect the cognitive effort needed for the recognition of the infringement of each maxim, yielding a continuum of their cognitive difficulty and trajectory of development.
PA-028 Young children's coordination patterns of action timing in joint action game.
Naoki Furuhata, Atsushi Sato, Shoji Itakura A-0107
Young children's coordination patterns of action timing in joint action game.
1Naoki Furuhata, 2Atsushi Sato, 1Shoji Itakura
1 Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan. 2 University of Toyama, Toyama, Japan.

Developmental studies have shown that the ability to collaborate in joint action develops around 1 to 3 years of age. However, there is less evidence for the mechanisms by which joint actions are achieved in young children. Previous studies have not focused on a process of achieving joint action with a partner in a truly interactive manner. Here we investigated a process of performing joint action in mother-child interaction to reveal the mechanisms by which joint actions are achieved in young children. The current study examined the joint action performances with their mothers in 2.5-, 3.0-, 3.5-year-old children using a sequential button-pressing game. Mother-child pairs had to push their button in an alternating sequence to move the character up the ladder step by step until it reached the finish line. We analyzed a timing change of one`s button press after another's button press as dyadic coordination pattern by cross-correlation analysis.Results showed that the joint action performances of mother-child pairs improved among 2.5-to-3.5-year-olds. However, in the performance of pairs, only mother's performances significantly advanced with their children's development, but not children's performances. Furthermore, we found that the dyadic coordination pattern changed across the development of children in the tendency to entrain timing changes in partner's button presses. These findings suggested that developmental changes in coordination processes of joint action have a significant role to clarify the mechanisms by which joint actions are achieved in young children.
PA-029 The influence of infants’ individual preferences and mothers’ input
Vivien Radtke, Tanya Behne, Nivedita Mani A-0067
The influence of infants’ individual preferences and mothers’ input
Vivien Radtke, Tanya Behne, Nivedita Mani
University Göttingen, Göttingen, Germany

Several studies suggest a preference for infant-directed over adult-directed speech (hereafter, IDS and ADS), starting immediately after birth (Pegg, Werker, & McLeod, 1992; Segal & Newman, 2015). However, the reason why infants find it easier to learn from IDS compared to ADS is still under discussion (Golinkoff, Can, Soderstrom, & Hirsh-Pasek, 2015). In an ongoing study (n=16, age: 6.2 month), we investigate infants individual preference of IDS or ADS depending on the input they receive from their mother, in three different experiments. First, mothers are recorded while telling a story in imagined ADS and on a different day, telling the same story to their own child in IDS. Second, a preferential-listening task records the looking times of the child while listening to IDS and ADS. We expect infants to look longer on the screen if their preferred speech register is played. Third, in an eye-tracking experiment, an actor turns towards one of two objects after the IDS vs ADS stimulus presentation, and infants’ gaze-following is recorded (cf., Senju & Csibra, 2008). Preliminary results revealed that if the input infants typically receive from their mother tends to be more ADS-like, they will listen longer to the IDS passages (r=-0.952, p=0.048, n=4) and will follow the gaze of an actor during ADS presentation. All in all, the preliminary data suggest that there is a tendency indicating that the input the child receives plays a major role regarding her individual motivation and her ability to learn words from different speech registers.

PA-031 Stability of Individual Differences in Number Sense Acuity during Infancy
Elin Schröder, Marcus Lindskog A-0109
Stability of Individual Differences in Number Sense Acuity during Infancy
Elin Schröder, Marcus Lindskog
Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden

Humans and other animals have an intuitive sense of number (Dehaene, 1997), supported by an approximate number system (ANS). Previous studies in children and adults have found individual differences in the precision of the ANS, which correlate with mathematics performance (Halberda et al., 2012). However, little is known about individual differences in the ANS in infancy. In the current study we aimed at a fine grained analysis of individual differences in numerical discrimination during infancy by adopting a method which tests infants at multiple levels of difficulty, similarly to methods used to determine discrimination thresholds in adults and older children. Using eye-tracking, 96 infants were tested on a numerical change detection paradigm. The task was administered at three difficulty levels, determined by the ratio between the two alternating numerosities (1:4, 1:2 and 2:3). Infants were tested on all three ratios both at 6- and 10-months of age. Preference scores were calculated by dividing looking time to the numerically changing stream by the total looking time to both streams. Results showed that only preference scores on the most difficult ratio (2:3) at 6-months could predict numerical discrimination preference scores on the same ratio at 10-months, indicating that stability in individual differences is primarily found on ratios that are more difficult (2:3), possibly due to better discriminability of the test at this ratio. We also find stability in infants’ discrimination profiles, as indexed by the slope of the preference scores across the three ratios, between 6- and 10-months of age.
PA-033 The understanding of false and true belief in two-year-old children – Issue of competence or pragmatics?
Nese Oktay-Gür, Lisa Wenzel, Hannes Rakoczy A-0104
The understanding of false and true belief in two-year-old children – Issue of competence or pragmatics?
Nese Oktay-Gür, Lisa Wenzel, Hannes Rakoczy
Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, Germany

Explicit false belief tasks have been the litmus test of Theory of Mind (ToM) competences. These tasks show that children acquire a full blown ToM around age four. Using children’s helping behavior as an implicit response measure, Buttelmann et al. (2009) showed that even 16- to 18-month-olds help the agent according to her false or true belief in location change tasks. Here, in the false belief version the agent is -based on her false belief- searching for an object in the wrong box. In this case the toddler is expected to interpret this behavior as indicating that the agent wants the object and to help her finding it (in the other box). However, in the true belief task the agent is searching in a box she truly believes to not contain the object she was interest in initially. In this case the toddler is expected to interpret her behavior as indicating that she wants something else with the box and to help her to search in the box she targeted. Because of the differences in logic rigor and confounding contrast between the two conditions, we designed more parallel false and true belief helping tasks. Following Call & Tomasello (1999), in this task the toddler is unaware of the object’s location. She has to infer the real location based on the agent’s searching behavior. Preliminary data shows that 2 out of 5 children in the false belief and 3 out of 4 in the true belief condition solved the given task.
PA-034 the development of food concepts and its relation to food rejections in children from 2 to 6 years of age
Camille Rioux rnJérémie Lafraire rnDelphine Picard A-0030
the development of food concepts and its relation to food rejections in children from 2 to 6 years of age
Camille Rioux 1,2rnJérémie Lafraire 2rnDelphine Picard 1
1 Aix Marseille Université, PSYCLE EA3273, 13621 Aix en Provence, Francern2 Center for Food and Hospitality Research, Paul Bocuse Institute, Ecully, France

This research aimed to decipher the suspected relationship between early development of food concepts and food rejection tendencies in young children. We hypothesized that: (i) children’s food categorization and inductive abilities improve between 2 and 3 years of age, (ii) food rejections are interconnected with children’s developing food categorization and induction systems, and (iii) food categorization and inductive abilities are influenced by color as color conveys typicality information of a given food.
We tested these hypotheses with two samples of 2-6 years old children (N1= 79, N2= 126). N1 participants performed a categorization task : they were presented with fruits and vegetables photographs and asked to put in the same box photographs belonging to the same category. N2 participants performed a category-based induction task : they were presented with triads containing one target (a vegetable) and two test pictures (a vegetable dissimilar in color to the target and a fruit similar in color to it) and were told a property about the target and asked to generalize it to one of the two test pictures. We recorded accuracy measures (hit and false alarm rates for N1, number of category-based response for N2), and food rejection scores (measured through a questionnaire).
As expected, the results showed an age-related increase in food categorization and inductive performances. We also found a negative relationship between children’s food rejection scores and their cognitive abilities. Finally, our findings highlighted the central role of typicality in explaining the importance of color in food categorization.
PA-035 The acquisition of recursive possessive structures in Hungarian
Agnes Toth A-0088
The acquisition of recursive possessive structures in Hungarian
Agnes Toth
1 Research Institute for Linguistics (HAS) 2Pázmány Péter Catholic University, Budapest

According to Chomsky (2002) the key factor distinguishing Human languages from animal communication is recursion. Children’s understanding of Hungarian recursive possessive structures was tested experimentally on 22 second grade students (mean age 7;8) in sentence-picture matching task. The research questions were: (i) whether they understand recursive possessives correctly (Hollebrandse & Roeper 2014), (ii) if the salient -nAk appearing in possessive structures can help children to use recursive forms (diSciullo 2015, Tóth, É.Kiss & Roeper 2016) (iii) whether children adopt a conjunctive interpretation at first which turns into recursion at a later age (Roeper 2011, 2014). After hearing a sentence of the series in (1)-(3), they had to tell which one of pictures A (recursive meaning) and B (conjunctive meaning) sentence describes.
(1)?A maci doboza szalagja piros.
the teddy bear box-POSS ribbon-POSS red
(2) A maci dobozá-nak a szalagja piros
the teddy bear box-POSS-DAT the ribbon-POSS red
(3)?A maci-nak a dobozá-nak a szalagja piros
the teddy bear-DAT the box-POSS-DAT the ribbon-POSS red
The meaning of (1)-(3): ‘The teddy bear’s box’s ribbon is red.'
The data show that structure (1) is mostly interpreted conjunctively, but structures (2) and (3), in which one or both of the possessors are case-marked, are interpreted recursively (picture A) (p=0.003892).
We have obtained the following: (i) 7-year-old children can understand recursive possessives; (ii) interpretation is easier in case of sentences (2) and (3) i.e. an intervening overt functional head facilitates the understanding of recursion; (iii) 7-year-old children are prone to interpret recursion conjunctively, and recursively.
PA-036 Development of the Evidence Concept: How do the children use this knowledge to justify their arguments?
Andrea Miralda Banda, Merce Garcia-Mila A-0106
Development of the Evidence Concept: How do the children use this knowledge to justify their arguments?
Andrea Miralda Banda, Merce Garcia-Mila
Department of Developmental Psychology and Education. University of Barcelona.

Research on argumentation skills has repeatedly shown children's and adults' difficulties to differentiate between theory and evidence. Many of these studies focused on children´s skills for evidence interpretation in a scientific reasoning context, showing a quite basic competence in evidence evaluation. Nevertheless, these studies did not consider neither subjects’ evidence production, nor they explore their prior conception of evidence. The elicitation of the concept of evidence could play a role in children´s argumentation because of the mobilization of metacognitive skills during dialogic argumentation. Consequently, the aim of the present study was to explore the development of the Evidence concept in two groups (N=66) of 4th (9-11 years old) and 6th (11-13 years old) grades primary students. Data were collected through an individual semi-structured interview that explored children’s ability to justify their opinion based on evidence. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of the content were based on their answer to the question: “Could you explain what an evidence is?” and on how they used this definition to justify throughout the interview. The type of evidence provided was also characterized. Preliminary results showed significant differences between groups in the measures: Concept of Evidence (4thgrade µ=0.64(0.78), 6thgrade µ=1.42(1.06), p=0.001) and Comprehension of the function of the Evidence (4thgrade µ=0.52(0.56), 6thgrade µ=1.06(0.70), p=0.002), being performance better in the oldest group, which may suggest a developmental trajectory. These differences could explain young children’s difficulties to justify their theories with arguments supported by evidence. Considering children’s conception of Evidence may contribute to improve interventions on argumentation.
PA-037 The Developmental Trajectory of an Anticipatory Looking False Belief Task from Infancy to Preschool-Age - a Longitudinal Study
Charlotte Grosse Wiesmann, Nikolaus Steinbeis, Angela Friederici, Tania Singer A-0153
The Developmental Trajectory of an Anticipatory Looking False Belief Task from Infancy to Preschool-Age - a Longitudinal Study
Charlotte Grosse Wiesmann 1, Nikolaus Steinbeis 2, Angela Friederici 1, Tania Singer 3
1 Department of Neuropsychology, Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences, Leipzig, Germany 2 Unit Developmental and Educational Psychology, Institute of Psychology, Leiden University, Netherlands 3 Department of Social Neuroscience, Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences, Leipzig, Germany

The ability to attribute mental states to other agents is referred to as Theory of Mind (ToM). For decades, it has been believed that a developmental breakthrough in ToM is achieved around the age of 4 years when children start understanding that others can have false beliefs about the world. Recently, however, infants younger than 2 years of age have been shown to pass novel implicit false belief tasks, such as, violation of expectation and anticipatory looking paradigms. It remains a puzzle how infants can display correct expectations of the actions of an agent with a false belief before the age of 2 years, while preschoolers fail standard explicit false belief tasks at the age of 3. The developmental trajectory of the early implicit false belief tasks and their robustness remain a matter of debate. Here, we tested 2-year-old children longitudinally until the age of 4 years in an established anticipatory looking false belief task (Southgate et al. 2007). In our setup, children displayed correct anticipations only by the age of 4 years, while they remained at chance level at the ages of 2 and 3 years. There was a significant developmental change between the ages of 3 and 4 years, at a similar age than the developmental breakthrough in the traditional explicit false belief tasks. We speculate on reasons for this differential developmental trajectory compared to previous anticipatory looking tasks.
PA-038 When are infants aware of the action-effect causality?
Fumiaki Yoshida,Reiko Matsunaka, Kazuo Hiraki A-0140
When are infants aware of the action-effect causality?
Fumiaki Yoshida,Reiko Matsunaka, Kazuo Hiraki
The University of Tokyo,Tokyo,Japan

We investigated five-month-old infants' process of action-effect causality perception by using a digital pacifier. Rochat and Striano (1999) reported that two-month-old infants more strongly sucked a pacifier when the pitch variation was an analog of sucking pressure than when the pitch variation was a non-analog of sucking pressure. However, the progressive learning process of action-effect causality perception is still unclear. When are infants aware of the action-effect causality? Present study aimed to clarify the process of action-effect causality perception in more detail with a digital pacifier developed in our laboratory, which provides higher time resolution data (50Hz) than data in previous studies (15-30Hz). Infants were assigned two different conditions. In one condition (auditory contingent condition), sound stimulus was presented when the sucking pressure exceeded a certain threshold. In the other condition (yoked condition), infants were exposed a sequence of auditory stimuli pre-recorded in other infant’s sucking.The results showed that the frequency of supra-threshold infant’s sucking gradually increased in the auditory contingent condition, while it did not in the yoked condition.It suggested that five-month-old infants progressively identify the causal link between sucking and sounds, and using a digital pacifier with a make high time resolution analysis might reveal the dynamic learning process of action-effect causality.
PA-039 Learning from reliable and unreliable speakers – early roots and cognitive underpinnings
Benjamin Schmid, Nivedita Mani, Tanya Behne A-0139
Learning from reliable and unreliable speakers – early roots and cognitive underpinnings
Benjamin Schmid 1, Nivedita Mani 2, Tanya Behne 1
1 Department of Developmental Psychology, University of Goettingen, Goettingen, Germany 2 Psychology of Language Research Group, University of Goettingen, Goettingen, Germany

Preschoolers selectively learn from previously reliable over unreliable informants (Koenig & Harris, 2005), and even toddlers learn more when information is provided by a reliable speaker (Koenig & Woodward, 2010). While the phenomenon is well documented, less is known about its cognitive underpinnings and early development. Do children encode information from reliable and unreliable sources differently? Are differences in learning from reliable and unreliable speakers influenced by the extent to which these speakers cohere or contradict one another? And to what extent do toddlers rely on the same strategies as preschoolers?
To investigate selective learning strategies in 2- and 5-year-olds, we are using an eye-tracking paradigm. Over the course of several experiments, we examine situations in which previously reliable and unreliable informants offer compatible information, i.e. different novel labels for different unfamiliar objects (Study 1), or contradictory information, i.e. the same novel label for different objects (Study 2), as is more common in the classical paradigms (e.g. Birch, Vauthier & Bloom, 2008).
Data collection is still ongoing, but preliminary data from Study 1 suggest that children in both age groups (2-year-olds: N = 29, 5-year-olds: N = 14) learnt from both reliable and unreliable informants in a situation where they provide compatible information. These findings suggest that children encode information learnt from both reliable and unreliable speakers. Time course analyses however suggest differences in access to that information, as both 2- and 5-year-olds seem to be slower at identifying a target when it was labelled by an unreliable informant.
PA-040 Identifying a target in hierarchical patterns: does the pattern's density matter?
Setareh Mokhtari, Hamidreza Pouretemad A-0005
Identifying a target in hierarchical patterns: does the pattern's density matter?
Setareh Mokhtari , Hamidreza Pouretemad
Institute for Cognitive and Brain Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran

Previous research has mostly focused on studying the preferred visual processing strategy in children and has not attended to the children’s ability to use global and local processing strategies in response to the demands of the situation. Our aim was to investigate children’s ability to adopt the most relevant processing strategy in order to detect a target shape embedded randomly at the global or the local level of hierarchical patterns. The hierarchical patterns varied in terms of the number of local elements. Efficient performance in this task required an ability to switch between both processing strategies. Our results showed that when the hierarchical pattern consisted of many elemental parts, children’s (N= 23; age: 6 to 11) ability in adopting the global or local processing strategy was not significantly different. However, decreasing the number of local elements facilitated local processing. We discussed that children’s efficient utilization of processing strategies is context-dependent.
PA-041 Referential Intention Cues in Word Learning and Word Extension
Tatyana Kotova, Svetlana Shamanova, Alexey Kotov A-0103
Referential Intention Cues in Word Learning and Word Extension
Tatyana Kotova 1, Svetlana Shamanova 2, Alexey Kotov 3
1 Russian Academy for National Economy and Public Administration, Moscow, Russia; 2 Moscow State University of Psychology and Education, Russia; 3 Higher School of Economics, Moscow, Russia

Recent findings suggest that the referential intention cues as a component of joint attention facilitate acquisition of a unit in the symbolic system, but have no impact on the word-object association (Kotova&Kotov,2015). However, the role of referential intention in generalization of a novel word remains unclear.
We addressed this question by manipulating referential intention in naming and in demonstration of the object’s feature.
In the naming with referential intention(NR) conditions, the artificial label was introduced with the naming phrase. In the naming without referential intention(N) conditions, the experimenter introduced the label commenting during manipulations with object. In the feature demonstration with referential intention(FR) conditions, the experimenter pointed to the feature and described it, and in the feature demonstration without referential intention(F) conditions, the experimenter turned the object by the side with the feature to the child and commented this.
The mutual exclusivity test was passed only in NR/FR-condition. Thus, intentional attraction of the child’s attention to the feature, as well as other referential intention cues, provide an acquisition of unit in the symbolic system.
The comprehension test was passed in all conditions, except NR/FR-condition. The word-object association became difficult when child’s attention was attracted to the feature and the entire object as referents of the one word.
Only in N/F-condition the choice of irrelevant object was significantly less than chance level in the word extension test. The referential intention cues do not support the generalization even if they are addressed to the feature as to the basis for the generalization.
PA-042 Information vs. Affiliation: What drives infants’ social preferences
Katarina Begus A-0167
Information vs. Affiliation: What drives infants’ social preferences
Katarina Begus
Central European University, Budapest, Hungary

Infants prefer to attend to, receive toys from and imitate people who speak the same language as them compared to foreign speakers (e.g. Kinzler et al., 2007). These preferences have commonly been interpreted as early indications of humans’ tendency to divide the social world into groups, preferring one’s own group and disfavouring others. We propose instead that infants’ preferences are driven by information-seeking, leading infants to prefer people who provide them with better learning opportunities. In a previous study we have indeed shown that infants treat native speakers as superior sources of information, as indicated by heightened EEG theta oscillations, reflecting an active and selective preparation for encoding information (Gruber et al., 2013).
Given that information in one’s own language enables better learning, it follows that infants’ motivation to learn would result in preferences for native speakers. However, this preference should not be observed if all speakers provided equally learnable information. To test this, we introduced infants to a native and a foreign speaker, who demonstrated functions of novel objects, while we measured EEG theta activity.
Eleven-month-olds showed no difference in the increase of theta oscillations when they could expect to receive information from the native or the foreign speaker (t (15) = 0.540; p = 0.597), suggesting that when the information is non-verbal, infants are equally motivated to learn from foreign and native speakers. Ongoing studies, contrasting knowledgeable-foreign to ignorant-native speakers, aim to further elucidate the mechanisms of infants’ social selectivity in light of their motivation to obtain information.
PA-043 Improving mathematical knowledge with approximate number comparison training in 7-8 year old children.
Nuria Ferres-Forga, Luca L. Bonatti (, ), and Justin Halberda . A-0152
Improving mathematical knowledge with approximate number comparison training in 7-8 year old children.
Nuria Ferres-Forga 1, Luca L. Bonatti (1, 2), and Justin Halberda 3.
1 Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona, Spain.rn2 ICREA, Pg. Lluís Companys 23, 08010 Barcelona, Spain. rn3 Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218, USArn

Recent results suggest that there is a relation between the Approximate Number System (ANS) and arithmetic competence. Currently, much research is devoted to how ANS training can improve performance. However, the exact effects of ANS training, and its potential impact on children with different competence profiles, are still poorly understood. Even at its very beginning, multiple abilities are needed to develop a solid understanding of mathematical problems. Thus, to correctly answer "3+5=☐" one has to master an algorithm (addition) without necessarily understanding the nature of the operation. Instead, to correctly answer "3☐5=15" one has to understand the nature of the operations, beyond the simple application of arithmetic algorithms.

We explored how ANS training influences the acquisition of these competences, and whether it differentially impacts children with different mathematical levels. We trained 7-8 year for three weeks, either with an approximate number comparison task (n=47) or a non-mathematical control task (n=44). We examined how children's abilities changed in applying algorithms ("3+5=☐") or in reasoning about operations (“3☐5=15”). Overall, training had no main effect. However, it improved the understanding of operations in those children who were initially poorer at applying addition and subtraction algorithms. We speculate that ANS training can improve the awareness of the nature of the operations, a conceptual achievement that can foster a better understanding in solving mathematical problems.

PA-044 When do we process others’ true and false beliefs: An EEG study of adults’ spontaneous tracking of others’ beliefs
Frances Buttelmann, Barbara Pomiechowska, Ágnes Melinda Kovács A-0168
When do we process others’ true and false beliefs: An EEG study of adults’ spontaneous tracking of others’ beliefs
Frances Buttelmann, Barbara Pomiechowska, Ágnes Melinda Kovács
Central European University, Cognitive Development Center - Budapest, Hungary

Although research suggested that adults automatically encode others’ beliefs (e.g., Kovács et al., 2010), it is unclear whether in false-belief scenarios participants compute an agent’s belief when i) reality starts changing without the agent’s knowledge, ii) the change reaches the end-state, or iii) the agent returns to the scene? We investigated this by measuring neural correlates of processing others’ beliefs using EEG.
We used an implicit avoidance-false-belief task, where participants observed as an angry animal (e.g., a dog) passed by one box, entered another one and finally jumped into a third box. Their task was to put a target animal (a cat) into one of these boxes while avoiding the dog. In addition a bystander agent was also present. In Study 1, in the false-belief condition (FB) she turned away and thus had a false belief about the dog’s final location, whereas in the true-belief (TB) she knew about the dog’s location. In Study 2, in a true-belief-update condition (TB-U), she was turned away while the dog jumped out of and back in the same box.
In Study 1, we found (N=15) greater late positive ERP in FB vs. TB at time (i) (T+=1.0, p≤.001), suggesting early belief-tracking. In Study 2 (N=15) participants even updated the agent’s TB at time (ii) in TB-U, signaled by more positivity compared to TB (T+=6.0, p=.002). At time (iii) the increase in alpha-synchrony in FB and TB-U vs. TB (T+=17.0, p≤.015) suggests that participants inhibited the agent’s irrelevant false-belief.
PC-026 The acquisition of Gender and Case in Russian: Russian-Dutch and Russian - Swedish bilingual children compared with their monolingual peers with and without SLI.
Elena Galkina, Natalia Ringblom, Natalia Urgumova A-0036
The acquisition of Gender and Case in Russian: Russian-Dutch and Russian - Swedish bilingual children compared with their monolingual peers with and without SLI.
Elena Galkina1, Natalia Ringblom 2, Natalia Urgumova3
1Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg, Russia; 2 Stockholm University, Sweden; 3 Child Rehabilitation center, St. Petersburg, Russia

The study presents a cross-linguistic comparison of simultaneous and early successive bilingual children and their monolingual Russian peers with and without language impairment. The emphasis will be made on the acquisition of gender and case in the oral narratives of adults and children.
The sample consists of the narratives of typically developing Russian – Dutch and Russian - Swedish bilingual children (age 4-6, n=60), typically developing Russian monolingual children (age 4-6, n=50), Russian monolingual children diagnosed with SLI (age 4-6, n=50) and adults studying Russian as the second language (students 20-26 years old, n=40).
The results indicate partial similarity between typically developing bilingual children, monolingual children with SLI and adults acquiring Russian as a second language. The ungrammatical forms found in the speech of bilinguals were of three kinds: (1) those that were also present in monolingual Russian children, (2) those found in speakers acquiring Russian as an L2 and (3) those found in the material of Russian SLI children.
Several structural modifications and replacements were found in the children’s narratives in Russian that can be classified as bilingual innovations since they arise as a natural outcome of children’s contact with the two languages. But they cannot be explained by transfer alone since the children made mistakes even when the two languages were structured in the same way. Rather, the bilingual environment as such seems to be the cause of the decreased structural complexity in one language – but not in both.
PC-028 A synthesis of the experimental evidence regarding the dissociable components of executive function skills in childhood: A meta-analysis
Réka Kassai, Zsófia K. Takács A-0131
A synthesis of the experimental evidence regarding the dissociable components of executive function skills in childhood: A meta-analysis
Réka Kassai, Zsófia K. Takács
Institute of Education, Eötvös Loránd University, Budapest, Hungary

There is controversy around the topic of executive function skills and whether there are different and dissociable components to this umbrella term. According to Miyake and colleagues (2000) the components of updating, inhibition and shifting are associated but clearly separable skills. Based on Diamond’s (2014) distinction of working memory, inhibitory control and cognitive flexibility, we aimed to synthesize all available empirical evidence with children regarding the connection of these components: that is, whether training one skill will have a transfer effect on another one. The following questions were investigated: 1. Is it possible to improve these skills in a young age by making children practice executive function tasks (near-transfer)?, 2. Do training effects transfer to untrained components of executive function (far-transfer)?.

Results of all available controlled experimental studies will be synthetized with samples up to age 12. Effect sizes are computed based on the standardized mean difference between the training and control conditions with the Hedges’ g statistics. Preliminary results show that there is a significant near-transfer effect (g+ = 0.403, k = 31, p < 0.01), showing that when children practice an executive function skill, in most cases working memory, they develop on the specific skill. However, we found no far-transfer effect (g+ = 0.102, k = 17, p = 0.26), suggesting that training one executive function component does not transfer to untrained skills. This pattern confirms the theory of dissociable executive function components utilizing experimental data. Differences between clinical and typically developing children will also be discussed.
17:15-18:45Paper Session 1    
Preschoolers adapt their explorative actions to the information structure of the task
Azzurra Ruggeri , Zi Lin Sim, Alison Gopnik A-0016
Preschoolers adapt their explorative actions to the information structure of the task
Azzurra Ruggeri 1 2, Zi Lin Sim 2, Alison Gopnik
1 Max Planck Institute for Human Development, Berlin, Germany 2 University of California, Berkeley

In this paper, we investigate whether 3- to 5-year-olds (N=88) are sensitive and adapt their exploratory actions to different information structure (i.e., distribution of likelihood across different hypotheses) of the environment.
Training. Participants are presented with two big boxes, each containing two smaller boxes. The experimenter places an egg shaker in one of the small boxes, four times. In the uniform condition the experimenter always places the egg in a different small box; in the skewed condition she always places the egg in the same small box. After each placement, children are asked to retrieve the egg and use it to activate a light-up toy. Children are then demonstrated two actions that are useful to find out whether a big box contains the egg: Shake it (the egg would sound if in one of the two small boxes contained), or open it, together with at least one of the small boxes inside.
Test. The experimenter hides the egg in one of the small boxes. The child is asked to find it, and is told that he can open only one of the big boxes.
Three- and 4-year-olds (70%) in the skewed condition opened the big box containing the small box where the egg had always been placed during training. In the uniform condition the majority of them (65%) shook the boxes first, to find out which one to open. On the contrary, most 5-year-olds (85%) shook the box first, in both conditions. We discuss alternative interpretations of these developmental differences.
Explaining away: how great apes learn causal structures by discounting alternatives
Christoph Völter, Josep Call A-0018
Explaining away: how great apes learn causal structures by discounting alternatives
Christoph Völter 1,2, Josep Call 1,2
1 University of St Andrews, St Andrews, UK; 2 Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Leipzig, Germany

Under natural conditions, animals often face situations with multiple events covarying in space and time. This poses a problem for causal learning because the causal structure underlying these events remains ambiguous. Here, we address the question how nonhuman great apes reduce this ambiguity based on (1) the temporal structure of events and (2) observed interventions. First, we presented apes with a task in which they needed to locate invisibly displaced food rewards based on visual trails. Crucially, apes distinguished trails based on the temporal order of cause and effect by ignoring trails that were already present before the reward was hidden. Control conditions ruled out that features of the trail itself led them to the baited container or that apes generally preferred the most recent trail they encountered. Second, we adapted the blicket detector paradigm for apes. Apes and 2.5-year-old children spontaneously distinguished between confounded and unconfounded interventions and preferred objects whose effect on the apparatus was unconditional of other objects. Together, these studies suggest that apes, like human children, use temporal structure and (observed) interventions to elucidate causal structures.
Teleology-in-Perspective: The role of counterfactual reasoning in false belief reasoning
Eva Rafetseder, Christine O'Brien, Brian Leahy, Josef Perner A-0033
Teleology-in-Perspective: The role of counterfactual reasoning in false belief reasoning
Eva Rafetseder 1,2, Christine O'Brien 3, Brian Leahy 2, Josef Perner 3
1 University of Stirling, UK; 2 University of Konstanz, Germany; 3 University of Salzburg, Austria

Accumulating evidence suggests that counterfactual reasoning is involved in false belief reasoning. But traditional false belief tasks and simple counterfactual reasoning tasks (e.g., Harris, German, and Mills 1996, Cognition 61) only allow one kind of error: the Reality Error. Recent findings in counterfactual reasoning tasks identified a second possible error and found that children do not avoid this error before age 6 (Rafetseder, Christi-Vargas, and Perner 2010, Child Development 81). We call this the Basic Conditional Reasoning (BCR) error. We developed a false belief task that enabled the BCR error, and investigated the relationship between false belief reasoning and counterfactual reasoning using these more subtle tests. 171 children, adolescents and adults participated in two experiments. Both experiments found high correlations (r = .58 and r = .73) between counterfactual and false belief questions. We conclude that counterfactual reasoning has a role in false belief reasoning, but we distinguish two strategies for reasoning with counterfactual assumptions. One—Basic Conditional Reasoning—leads to success on simple counterfactual and false belief tasks, but yields BCR errors on both of our more subtle tasks. The other strategy yields success on all tasks. This helps explain why children can pass some false belief and counterfactual reasoning tasks when young but continue to fail more complex false belief and counterfactual reasoning tasks for several years. Findings shed light on two recent theories, Adaptive Modelling and Teleology-in-Perspective.
18:45-20:00Invited Lecture 1    
The Neuroscience of Social Emotions and Cognition: From Ontogeny to Plasticity
Tania Singer A-0171
The Neuroscience of Social Emotions and Cognition: From Ontogeny to Plasticity
Tania Singer
Department of Social Neuroscience at the Max-Planck-Institue, Leipzig, Germany

The social neurosciences have focused on the question of how people relate to and understand each other. Hereby, researchers have distinguished between at least two different routes on the understanding of others: one affective-motivational route referring to our ability to feel with (empathy) and for (compassion) another person, and a cognitive route allowing to infer other people's intentions, believes, and thoughts - a capacity also referred to as Theory of Mind, mentalizing or cognitive perspective taking. While it has been proposed that humans share states of others by means of projecting their own mental or feeling states onto the other, such a mechanism also has the risk of resulting in an emotional egocentricity bias (EEB), especially in situations when others feel or think differently than oneself.
After introducing relevant concepts and their underlying neuronal basis, I will present newly developed paradigms and results regarding the development of social emotions and EEB in children and suggest that it is the late development of parietal-frontal networks that predict increased emotional egocentricity in younger children. More specifically, I will argue that overcoming emotional egocentricity relies on socio-affective brain networks including the supramarginal gyrus, whereas inhibiting incongruent cognitive beliefs engages adjacent brain structures related to the mentalizing network including the temporo-parietal junction. I will further present results from studies revealing evidence for a similar dissociation in autism as well as through the differential training of socio-affective and socio-cognitive capacities in healthy adult populations. More specifically, I will introduce the ReSource Project, a large-scale multi-methodological one-year secular mental training program that aimed by means of three distinct 3-months training modules at the cultivation of 1) attention and interoceptive awareness, 2) meta-cognition and perspective taking on self and others, and 3) empathy, compassion and prosocial motivation in more than 200 subjects. I will present first training-module specific findings suggesting malleability of the social brain on the level of behavior, brain, and health and discuss their relevance for models
20:30-22:00 Welcome Reception